Monday, May 25, 2020

The Ability Of All Citizens To Participate In Politics

The ability of all citizens to participate in politics is a fundamental right established by international law and implemented within Australia (austliii). This ensures effective and active civic participation within the nation, which Australia, as a democratic country, needs. However, marginalised groups within Australian society face barriers to their civic engagement, attributable to a number of hindering factors often out of their control. This essay aims to examine Ian Macfarlane’s speech â€Å"I’ve changed my mind, we picked the wrong date†, and its relation to the national issue of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander civic participation, or lack thereof, in Australia. Ian Macfarlane is a former Australian politician with the Liberal†¦show more content†¦Macfarlane’s speech is inherently linked to the notion of civic participation within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. In order to holistically understand civil engagement amongst Indigenous Australians, we must first look historically at their place within Australia’s political society. Despite being the nation’s first inhabitants, Indigenous Australians were not granted the right to vote until 1962 when the Commonwealth Electoral Act (1918) was amended by the Menzies Government (refernce). Furthermore, Indigenous Australians were not formally recognised within the census, nor was the Commonwealth able to make laws in relation to them, until the successful 1967 referendum which amended sections 51 and 127 of the Constitution (refernce). Whilst this was an important step towards increasing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander political participation , it is still extremely problematic, as it removed all references to Indigenous Australians from the Constitution completely. The Australian Constitution therefore fails to acknowledge history prior to settlement, presenting Australia’s national narrative as beginning with British arrival (refernce). This historical misrepresentation of Aboriginals in the Constitution, which is still highly problematic today, holds the roots of the low levels of civic engagement within the Indigenous community. The overwhelming IndigenousShow MoreRelatedThe Political Culture Of Politics1506 Words   |  7 PagesThe term ‘politics’ itself has changed over many years. To ask if the evolution of political culture changes how people participate in politics is simple. The answer is yes. To begin with, let’s define political culture; ‘Authors define the term political culture as the particular distribution of patterns of orientation towards political objects among the me mbers of a nation’ (Almond and Verba 1963: 13 cited in Welzel and Inglehart, 2014 p.285). Now let’s define culture; ‘the term culture coversRead MoreTaking a Look at Political Culture1395 Words   |  6 Pagescountries are continuously changing over time and how this influences certain ways individuals participate in politics in everyday life. It is said that the ideal democratic culture is one that is dominated by an expressive citizen. In this culture citizens participate in what is known as ‘elite challenging’ political activities. This is supposed to prove healthy for democracy because constant pressure from citizens forces decision makers to be more accountable. The values portrayed by the expressive characterRead MoreThe Presidency Of 44th Us President Barak Obama1454 Words   |  6 Pagesfor being a citizen. The difficulty in finding a clear-cut definition is not a recent philosophical quandary, rather it is one that has been in the minds of many great thinkers for centuries. In Aristotle’s work Politics, Aristotle juggles a myriad of complex questions such as â€Å"What makes the City?† and â€Å"Why is Man at nature political?†. Yet Aristotle’s grappling with the concept of â€Å"citizenship† is one of extreme intrigue that deserves to be parsed and analyzed at len gth. A citizen, as seen byRead MorePolitics Is A Sphere Of Human Activity1098 Words   |  5 PagesWhen people hear the word â€Å"politics†, one would think of governments, elections, or or manipulation. Unfortunately, this isn’t what politics really is. There isn t a definite answer to what politics is. â€Å"Politics was a sphere of human activity peculiarly dependent upon truth.† (Elshtain.J, 1997: p.36). Politics is an activity or a discipline that is out there in public. Politics is a living subject that tends to give one peace and collaboration. Politics, to some, might mean that governments makeRead MorePolitical Parties And Interest Groups940 Words   |  4 Pagesparties and interest groups are able to get citizens to participate in politics and political party participants or interest group members. This is a comparison and contrast paper. The following will be a comparison between political parties and interest groups. Three points will be mentioned . The first point will be the purpose, the second will be the role they play and finally three strategies parties and interest groups use to get people to participate. A political party is a group of well-dedicatedRead MoreAthens †¦Democracy Realized?. . . Gregory R. Bowen. History1656 Words   |  7 Pagesinspiration to all future attempts at this system of government. While it was practiced as a direct democracy, with all eligible citizens having the right to vote, the question of just how democratic it really was, must be asked. Who was eligible to vote and participate in political life? What role did women, slaves, and foreigners play in Athens? How accessible was the ability to vote? The answers to these questions will show that while the Athenians practiced a government in which its citizens had moreRead MoreAthenian Citizenship : Aristotle s Exclusions1511 Words   |  7 Pagesqualifications, and revocable upon meeting certain others. While Aristotle is unable to answer clearly â€Å"who should properly be called a citizen and what a citizen really is† (p.85), he dedicates several chapters to explicating who is not a citiz en in an attempt to determine who is. Though Aristotle cannot come up with a composite definition of a citizen that applies to all citizens, he provides reasons for the exclusion of several groups of Athenian inhabitants for citizenship based on a variety of arbitraryRead MoreThe Need for Empowerment1652 Words   |  7 PagesThe American people feel powerless and are extremely uneducated in relation to politics government, and the world around them. Civic participation is considered a fruitless measure in the minds many American citizens. When interviewed on the subject; many depict themselves as a minute part of a huge entity in which they have no control. Others expressed a lack of time and energy that it takes to be involved, or a dependence on the country as a whole - to make the right decisions. The understandingRead MoreA Summary Of Plato And Aristotle818 Words   |  4 PagesPhilosophy, the oldest of all academic disciplines, is the study of the fundamental nature of the world. Political philosophy, more specifically, is the study of the function of governments and states, as well as the relationship of individuals to these governments and states. As such, philosophers have often sought to understand politics and political activities, and the role in which individuals play in the public sphere. Throughout history, many philosophers have argued that human beings mustRead MorePolitics is the Manner in Which Society is Organized1767 Words   |  7 PagesPolitics is a complex theoretical representation of the manner in which society is organised. Politics,by definition,has many different meanings and branches. The most basic definition of politics as defined by David Easton is the â€Å"authoritative allocationof values†. The greatest assumption that politics makes is that a person can change the situation in which they find themself. Politics has a normative value that is there is a difference between the way things are and the ways things sho uld be

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Medieval Women of History 500 CE - 1600 CE

An index to biographies on this site of notable women who lived about 500 through about 1600 -- including the Middle Ages, the European Renaissance and the Tudor period in British history. A Adelaide  (931 - 999): saint, Western empress, regentAelfgifu  (~ 985 - 1002?):  first  wife of King Aethelred II the UnreadyAelfled:  same as Aethelflaed belowAelfthryth  (877 - 929): princess, countess,  genealogical link of  Anglo Saxon  kings to  Anglo Norman  dynasty, daughter of Alfred the GreatAelfthryth  Ã‚  (945 - 1000):  English Saxon queen, married to King Edgar the Peaceable and the mother of King  Aethelflaed  (872-879? - 918): defeated  the Danes at Leicester and Derby, invading WalesAmalasuntha  (498 - 535): ruler of the Ostrogoths, first as regent for her sonAmina, Queen of Zazzau  (~ 1533 - ~ 1600): warrior queen, extended territory of her peopleAndal  (10th century):  Alvar saint, Tamil devotional poet, daughter of PeriyalvarMargaret of Anjou  (1429 - 1482):  Queen Consort of Henry VI of England, figure in the Wars of the Roses and the Hundred Years War, character in four plays by William ShakespeareAnna  of Kiev (963 - 1011):  married to Vladimir I the Great of Kiev; her marriage was the occasion of the conversion of Vladimir to Christianity and thus the Christianization of RussiaAnna Comnena  (1083 - 1148): Byzantine princess, political figure, historian, medical writerAnne Neville  (1456 - 1485):  wife of Edward, Prince of Wales, son of Henry VI; wife of Richard of Gloucester, and, when he became King Richard III, Anne became Queen of EnglandAnne of Cleves  (1515? - 1557): married to and divorced from Henry VIII of England B Berengaria  of Navarre (1163? 1165? - 1230): queen consort of Richard I of England  Berenguela of Castile  (1180 - 1246): briefly, queen of Leon; regent of Castile for her brother Enrique IBrunhilde  (~ 545 - 613): Queen of the Franks, Queen of Austrasia, regent C Catherine of Siena  (1347 - 1380): patron saint of Italy, credited  with persuading the Pope to return the papacy from Avignon to Rome; one of two women who were named  Doctors of the Church  in 1970Catherine of Valois  (1401 - 1437):  wife of Henry V of England, mother of Henry VI, grandmother of Henry VII the first Tudor king, also the daughter of a kingCecily Neville, Duchess of York  (1415 - 1495):  figure in the Wars of the Roses in medieval England, mother of King Edward IV and King Richard III, grandmother of  Elizabeth of York  who married Henry VIIClare of Assisi  (1193/4 - 1253) founded the Poor Clares, a Franciscan order for womenAnna Comnena  (1083 - 1148): Byzantine princess, political figure, historian, medical writer D Isabella dEste  (1474 - 1539):  Marchioness ( Marchessa) of Mantua, ruler, art collector and patron; actively involved in political intriguesMargaret Douglas  (1515 - 1578):  grandmother of James VI of Scotland who became James I of England, niece of Henry VIII, plotted on behalf of Roman Catholicism in England E Edith of Wilton  (961 - 984): nun at Wilton, illegitimate daughter of Edgar the Peaceable, reportedly offered the crown of England by noblesEleanor of Aquitaine  (1122 - 1204): ruler in her own right of Aquitaine, queen consort in France then queen consort in England and queen mother in EnglandEleanor of England  (1215 - 1275): daughter of King John of England and wife of Simon de MontfortEleanor of England, Queen of Castile  (1162 - 1214): queen consort of Alfonso VIII of Castile, daughter of Henry II of EnglandElfreda  or Elfrida or Elfgiva  (~ 985 - 1002?):  first  wife of King Aethelred II the UnreadyElfthryth  (945 - 1000):  English Saxon queen, married to King Edgar the Peaceable and the mother of King  Elizabeth I of England  (1533 - 1603): queen of England 1558 - 1603Elizabeth Woodville  (~ 1437 - 1492): queen consort of Edward IV, mother of Edward V, mother of Elizabeth of YorkElizabeth of York  (1466 - 1503): daughter of Edward IV and  Elizabet h Woodville, queen consort of Henry VII, mother of Henry VIII, Mary Tudor and Margaret TudorIsabella dEste  (1474 - 1539):  Marchioness (  Marchessa) of Mantua, ruler, art collector and patron; actively involved in political intriguesEthelfleda  (872-879? - 918): defeated  the Danes at Leicester and Derby, invading Wales F Fredegund  (~ 550 - 597): consort of King Chilperic I of Soissons G Beatriz Galindo  (~ 1464, 1474, or 1475 - 1534): tutor, physician, writerLady Godiva  (~ 1010 - 1066/86): noblewoman of legendary horseback rideLady Jane Grey  (1537 - 1554): 9 day reign as Queen of England, briefly supplanting Mary I and Elizabeth I H Hrotsvitha  (~ 930 - after 973): canoness, poet, dramatist, historian I Isabella I of Castile and Aragon (Isabella of Spain): Queen of Castile and AragonIsabella of France  (1292 - 1358): Queen consort of Edward II of England, mother of Edward III, rebelled against husbands rule and deposed himIsabella dEste  (1474 - 1539):  Marchioness ( Marchessa) of Mantua, ruler, art collector and patron; actively involved in political intrigues J Joan of England  (1165 - 1199): daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Henry II of England, Sicilian queenJudith of France - Judith of Flanders  (about 843 - ?): married to two Saxon English kings, daughter of Charles the Bald, King of Franks and Holy Roman Emperor K Katherine of Valois  (1401 - 1437):  wife of Henry V of England, mother of Henry VI, grandmother of Henry VII the first Tudor king, also the daughter of a kingMargery Kempe  (~ 1373 - ~ 1440): mystic, autobiographer L Lady Li  (before 923 - after 934): artist, painter in ChinaLouise of Savoy  (1476 - 1531):  Duchess of Angoulà ªme, mother of Francis I of France and  Marguerite of NavarreLudmilla  (860 - 921): saint, instituted Christianity in Bohemia, supported and educated Duke Wenceslaus M Margaret of Anjou  (1429 - 1482):  Queen Consort of Henry VI of England, figure in the Wars of the Roses and the Hundred Years War, character in four plays by William ShakespeareMargaret of Scotland (Saint Margaret)  (~ 1045 - 1093): married Malcolm III, King of ScotlandMargaret Tudor  (1489 - 1541): sister of Henry VIII of England, queen of James IV of Scotland,  grandmother of  Mary, Queen of ScotsMargery Kempe  (~ 1373 - ~ 1440): mystic, autobiographerMarguerite of Navarre (Marguerite of Angoulà ªme)  (1492 - 1549): mother of Jeanne dAlbret, sister of King Francis I of France, grandmother of Henry IV of FranceMary I of England  (1516 - 1558): first queen to rule England in her own right with full coronationSaint Matilda of Saxony  (~ 895 - 986):  Queen of Germany, Empress, ancestor of Capetian dynasty, founder of monasteries, built churches, 10th century German saintEmpress Matilda, Lady of the English  (1102 - 1167): named heir of her father Henry I, foug ht civil war with her cousin, Stephen, when he seized the throneEmpress Maud: see Empress Matilda aboveMirabai  (~ 1498 - 1545): saint, poet, mystic, princess, rani O Olga of Russia  (or Kiev) (~ 890 - 969?): founded Russian Christianity with her grandson Vladimir, regent for her son P Catherine Parr  (1512? - 1548): sixth wife of Henry VIII S Louise of Savoy  (1476 - 1531): Duchess of Angoulà ªme, mother of Francis I of France and  Marguerite of NavarreSigrid the Haughty  (~ 968 - before 1013  if  she existed): legendary rebellious princessEmpress Suiko  (554 - 628): first reigning empress of Japan in recorded history T Saint Teresa of Avila  (1515 - 1582): established Discalced order of Carmelite nuns during Counter-Reformation, named Doctor of the Church in 1970Theodora  (~497/510 - 548): married to Justinian, Emperor of ByzantiumTrota or Trotula  (? - 1097?): physician, writer, possibly legendaryMargaret Tudor  (1489 - 1541): sister of Henry VIII of England, queen of James IV of Scotland,  grandmother of  Mary, Queen of Scots V Catherine of Valois  (1401 - 1437):  wife of Henry V of England, mother of Henry VI, grandmother of Henry VII the first Tudor king, also the daughter of a king W Elizabeth Woodville  (~ 1437 - 1492): queen consort of Edward IV, mother of Edward V, mother of  Elizabeth of York

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Mortgage Backed Securities Cause And Effect - 835 Words

Mortgage-Backed Securities: Cause Effect Introduction New-Age Guru Deepak Chopra once said that Wall Street was broken because it had succumbed to greed, corruption, and pure speculation with no real values. At the time, Chopra was informing his audience about the correlation between perception and fragility. Although perception can be changed, fragility cannot: a 100lb sac of concrete is still the equivalent of a 100lb sac of dollars. During the mid-1990s, the US economy had maintained stable growth, low unemployment, and low inflation; it was the longest undisrupted growth period post- the Vietnam War, the Dot.com Boom, and the stock market crash of 1987. Therefore, many politicians, economists, and consumers were under the assumption that the economy was very stable. But in reality this growth period was a faà §ade because it was built on mortgage-backed securities. Ultimately, since fragility does not change, mortgage-backed securities was one the main catalysts for the 2008 financial crisis, a crisis that is still affecting the country today. Throughout this paper, I hope to inform you about the causes and effects of mortgage-backed serecurties. Cause: Creation of Mortgage Backed Securities In the fall of 1982, Congress passed the Garn-St. Germaine Depository Institution Act, a law used to revitalize the housing industry by strengthening the financial stability of mortgage lending institutions (Reagan). Nevertheless, this well-wished Reagan initiative wasShow MoreRelatedFinancial Crisis And The Crisis1468 Words   |  6 PagesSummary Mortgage-backed securities and subprime mortgage crisis were generally thought to be the cause of the 2008 financial crisis. This paper will be discussing the cause of the financial crisis and the relationship between mortgage-backed securities and the crisis. The paper will further describe the actions taken by the government to recover the securities. The Cause of the Financial Crisis and the Recovery It is believed by many and known by some that the historical damage in the crisis ofRead MoreThe Problem Of Global Financial Crisis1122 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Securitisation is the process whereby loans, receivables and other financial assets are pooled together, with their cash flows or economic values redirected support payments on related securities.† â€Å"Securitization first emerged in the 1970s with the sale of securities backed by residential mortIn the 21st century, economic problems have incurred an increasing number of people s attention as the economic develop rapidly, and these problems are usually caused by human themselves. For instance, theRead MoreCauses of the Financial Crisis of 2008-20091736 Words   |  7 PagesCauses of The Financial Crisis of 2007-2009 According to our financial textbook â€Å" Financial crises are major disruptions in financial markets characterized by sharp declines in asset prices and firm failures† (Mishkin and Eakins 2012). In August 2007, defaults in mortgage market for subprime borrowers sent a shudder through the financial markets, leading to the worst U.S financial crisis since the Great Depression. Alan Greenspan, chairman of the Fed, described the financial crisis as a â€Å"once-in-a-centuryRead MoreThe Downfall Of The Subprime Mortgage Market1716 Words   |  7 PagesThe Downfall of the Subprime Mortgage Market During the housing boom, the subprime mortgage market enhanced the revenues of lenders, investment bankers and investors alike. While some knew the trend would come to an end many did not. When the housing bubble burst and home prices declined the effect on those involved was enormous, financial institutions who originally had low debt to equity ratios, soon found themselves on the cusp of bankruptcy. Housing Bubble Due to the U.S. Governments relaxedRead MoreThe View Of Green And Shoven ( 1986 ), Under Phm Model1562 Words   |  7 Pagescontract interest rate and refinancing rate. 2. The refinancing rate will also cause the accelerating effect on prepayment. 3. The prepayment also has relationship between mortgage balance and prepayment rate. As a higher cumulative prepayment, the lower the mortgage balance will be, which is shown below: Where, measures the mortgage balance at the beginning of period t if there is prepayment. is the mortgage balance at the beginning of period t if prepayment does not happen. From May toRead MoreSolving The Subprime Mortgage Crisis1012 Words   |  5 PagesS subprime mortgage crisis was a situation where the subprime borrowers started defaulting their loans and sharp reduction in home prices occurred as a result of which the heavy investors in mortgage sector suffered substantial losses. These crises created a global impact and triggered adversity throughout various sectors in the economy. Events That Lead To Subprime Mortgage Crises (Causes): Mortgage backed securities: Previously banks extended credit to the applicants for mortgages and these mortgagesRead MoreFinancial Crisis Impact On Institutions And Markets1196 Words   |  5 Pagesbeginning in 2007, negatively impacted the stability of financial institutions and markets across the world. While there are many speculative causes of the financial crisis, dealings in subprime mortgages are considered the biggest culprit. As a result, those involved in subprime mortgages, such as lenders, investment banks, credit rating agencies and securities investors were among the first to feel the crisis’ ramifications. Moreover, adjustments made to lending stipulations and interest rates producedRead MoreUnderstanding The Incidents Of The Two Eight Financial Crisis1247 Words   |  5 Pagesunderstand what a mortgage is. Someone who wants to buy a house will often borrow hundreds to thousands of dollars from a bank. In return, that bank receives a piece of paper, called a mortgage. The bank often s ells the mortgage to a third party. When an individual agrees to a mortgage, they are agreeing to pay back their loan in portions plus interest to whomever holds the mortgage. If the borrower does not repay the lender, the property will be taken back by whomever holds the mortgage; it is then soldRead MoreSubprime Mortgages And The Mortgage Crisis1546 Words   |  7 Pages Mortgage securities are crucial when it comes to the availability and cost of housing in the United States. This paper will analyze the mortgage securities market, and how the market functions. It will also focus on the subprime mortgages created from 2000 to 2006. Suggestions will be presented that would protect against the types of problems experienced in the mortgage securities market from 2006 through 2009. Mortgage securities are considered an ownership interest in mortgage loans madeRead MoreThe Real Estate Bubble Crisis1597 Words   |  7 Pagesan increasing inventory of housing.1 Foreclosure increases came from an unprecedented rise in mortgages called, subprime mortgages. These risky subprime mortgages, and the cottage industry within the financial sector that profited from them, created an overly leveraged and over exposed finance industry that created a massive recession when the bubble popped. In this essay, we will look into the many causes that created the bubble and the over exposure of the financial industry. The real estate bubble

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Five Students Behavior Samples for Students †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about the Primary Five Students Behavior. Answer: Introduction When teachers speak about behavior relating to the primary five students, usually refer to the bad behavior which includes, off-task, confrontational, un-biddable, maladjusted, acting-out, naughty, disruptive, anti-social and non-cooperative. These behaviors arise due to emotional and behavioral difficulties (Blackwood, 2014). The following categories show the behaviors of primary five in categories. Interest in schoolwork Negative approach to school Short attention span Constantly needs reminders Does not finish work/gives up easily Verbal off-task behaviors Learning organization Fails to meet deadlines, not prepared Inaccurate, messy and slow work Forgetful, copies or rushes work Communication Lack of use of non-verbal skills Constantly talks Inappropriate timing of communication Poor communication skills Work efficiency in a group Does not take turns Refuses to share Necessity in seeking help Makes excessive and inappropriate demands Does not ask finding out questions Constantly seeking assistance Behavior towards the teaching staff Deliberately interrupts to annoy Aims verbal aggression, swears at teacher Talks back impertinently to the teacher Responds negatively to instructions Respect to other pupils Inappropriate sexual behaviors Teases and bullies Scornful use of social aggression Verbal violence at other pupils Attention seeking Do dangerous things without thought Shouts and otherwise seeks attention Calls out, eats, run around the class Throws things, climbs on things Hum, fidgets, disturbs others Physically peaceable Cruel/spiteful Fights aims physical violence at others Bullies and intimidates physically Losses temper throws things Proper respect Steals things Destroy own and others things Poor respect for property Empathy Selfish No awareness of feelings of others Emotionally detached Intolerant Social awareness Stares blankly listless Not accepted or well-liked Few friends Shows bizarre behavior Withdrawn or unresponsive Does not participate in class activity Inactive daydreams stares into space Happiness Serious, said self-harming Infers suicide Prone to emotional upset, tearful Depressed, unhappy or discontented Confidence Lacks self-esteem, cautious, shy Does not take initiative Does not take initiative Reticent, fears failure, feels inferior Anxious, tense, tearful Emotional stability Does not recover quickly from upset Does not express feelings Frequent mood changes, irritable Over-reacts does not accept punishment or praise Does not delay gratification Inappropriate emotional reaction These behaviors greatly affect teaching thus hindering the teachers from executing their duties. Using operant condition technique on primary five students to control their behavior Many teaching staffs acknowledge that discipline is important for a child's success and development. The general belief about discipline is that it must be attained through punishment. However, this is not always the case; operant conditioning can also be used to foster positive reinforcement. This can be used in the classroom encourage the good behavior you want - and need among your pupils. The theory of operant conditioning is a theory that encourages good behavior through positive reinforcements and discourages negative behavior through negative reinforcement. According to the Psychologists, every action has an equal and opposite reaction or what is mostly referred to as a consequence. When the actions are good, there is a possibility that the individual might repeat the same action in future due to the realized positive consequences. On the other hand, if the consequence emanating from his actions is negative, chances of repeating such actions in a similar situation are minor. Through a repeated process of these actions and consequences, behavior is developed as the individual continues to learn what is appropriate and useful, and what is not (Aloff, 2013). Operant conditioning is very useful and effective in the classroom environment. Ways of reinforcing good behavior include praises, and rewards (Vargas, 2017). The following example shows how the praising works in a classroom environment. During 'listening time' in class, pupils are advised to remain quiet, and if they feel the need to make a vocal contribution, they are advised to raise up their hand. Those pupils who managed to sit quietly and behave in an exemplary way, were praised by the teacher by telling them well done- just as I asked'. The students would feel pleased by themselves due to the positive response was given to them. From there onwards, the kids are likely to repeat the action of listening quietly and raising their hands to make a vocal contribution in the future, due to the feeling of pride and self-satisfaction, which they want to emulate. (Axelrod, Hall, 2015). Though the technique is simple, the teacher has managed to teach the pupils on the kind of behavior that she desires, and through positive reinforcement, the child gets the urge to impress the teacher hence mutual positive outcome is realized. Another technique is through the use of rewards. However, rewards should not be used more often as they lead to addiction and dependency. Rewards make the pupils unable to act the same way in the future without rewards (Fredrick, 2017). Through incorporating operant conditioning techniques into lesson plans, the teacher can teach the pupils useful skills - as well as good behaviors. A teacher may use symbols such as smiley faces, stamps, stickers, and even simple ticks when a child does something correctly; this will motivate the pupils to repeat the good work again in the future (Staddon, Niv, 2012). Also, the operant conditioning can still be used by the teacher when he/she wants to teach the children a new skill or behavior e.g. spelling a word. To show the children that they have done the correct thing, the teacher can administer praise and do the opposite when they fail to get it right. The aim is to ensure that the teacher natures the pupils by aiding them in their development through instilling positive culture and approach Garner, 2017). Strengths Skinner theory advocates that that says, when a child is rewarded based on good behavior, there is a possibility that he/she will repeat the good behavior. If the pupil is not shown that the behavior is good through positive reinforcement such as praise and rewards, he/she lacks the drive to continue the good behavior. Consequently, when a pupil misbehaves, negative reinforcement, which strengthens the behavior in a positive way, may be applied. Punishing children as result of behaving in a certain way will make them not to repeat the behavior again. Using positive and negative reinforcement may help to solve pupils behavior problems. The pupils start to realize mentally and make the association between good behavior with rewards, and bad behavior with punishment. Good results will emanate from good behavior, while bad behavior produces an undesirable result (Simmon, 2017). Applying the operant theory can be more helpful in controlling a childs behavior compared to punishment o control students behavior. Usually when a child misbehaves, the teacher gives a punishment. The punishment may include taking away the privilege, issue more homework, or swap seats. If shows a good behaviour, special privileges are then given to the students, or free time, this is referred to as positive reinforcement. The other positive and negative reinforcements that can be used by the teacher are grades. When the pupil does not study for a test, the student scores low grades. The low grade acts as negative reinforcement for failing to do extra studies and high grades for studying. The operant theory is useful when developing children behavior, and when teaching them (Geis, Stebbins, Lundin, 2016). Weaknesses The operant theory seems to deal with the specific type of behavior that is good and bad. It looks like there may be no difference in between. The habit of reinforcing good behavior as a teacher is tiresome and can only takes place for a few times. The pupil ought to learn how to behave well and continue on that trend long after positive reinforcements has stopped. When the positive reinforcements stop, the pupil might stop behaving in a good way as well. Consequently, a pupil with a continuous bad behavior can only be punished many times before he/she loses the drive to work on his/her behavior. According to the operant theory, a badly behaving child requires a type of motivation to influence good behavior. Sometimes if whatever is discouraging negative reinforcement may not be adequate, in such a case an indirect motivation may be applied to influence a childs good behavior (Gupta, 2017). During the application of operant conditioning o pupils, it is advisable to allow a little room that encourages group work as well as asking of questions. Operant conditioning is rooted on improving behavior from lowest level of thinking, through the process of reinforcement, and continuously moves up until the desired behavior is attained. To practice the operant theory in the classroom, individual tasks are then given to the pupils by the teacher by the topic. This task is repeated until completion. This theory shows that the lack of engagement and motivation among the pupils, is the source of weakness in behavioral change. Students ought to engage in-group discussion and be encouraged to solve problems through experiments and research (Hasekiu, 2013). Reinforcement There are positive and negative reinforcements. These reinforcements work through increasing the likelihood of behavior. As for punishment, any action weakens that reduces the chance of the occurrence of behavior is termed as punishment.Positive punishment discourages a behavior through presenting unpleasant consequences after the response; on the other hand, negative punishment destroys a response by discouraging something pleasant. For instance, when a pupil is grounded after fighting with another pupil, will probably refrain from fighting due to the positive punishment. Another example is when a pupil misses the opportunity to go to recess after getting a poor grade. This is a negative punishment that makes the pupil improve the grades (Joseph, 1974). However, sometimes it becomes difficult to differentiate whether the punishment is positive and encourages behavior or negative punishment that decreases the behavior. For On a hot day cold wind con be viewed as a positive reinforcer as it brings a cool air to cool the heat, or a negative reinforce as it takes the heat away. However, it is a possible that the reinforcer can be positive negative at the same time. For instance, a smoker may smoke a cigarette for pleasure, which is a positive enforcement and eliminates the craving for nicotine, which makes it a negative reinforcement (Mike, 2011). When trying to change behavior, it is advisable that reinforcement and punishment are not contradicting each other. The use of positive reinforcement to change behavior is more fruitful than punishment. The reason behind it is that positive reinforcement tends to create a good feeling on the person or animal. This helps to create a relationship that is positive between the individual giving the reinforcement. Some of the positive reinforcement that can be used includes financial reward, awarding of status or prestige and verbal praise or approval. Punishment is more likely to encourage temporary changes in behavior as it leads to the creation of a negative relationship between the individual giving the reinforcement. In the absence of that individual providing the punishment, the chances of developing the unwanted behavior are high (Rachlin, 2015). Creating Complex Behaviors with the help of Operant Conditioning To instill complex behaviors, one needs to extend the use of operant learning and alter the schedule that is used for reinforcement. This paper has mostly discussed on continuous reinforcement schedule, upon which a behavior that is desired is reinforced whenever it occurs (Segal, 2016). Continuous reinforcement helps in obtaining fast results in learning. However, the behavior is extinct once the reinforcer disappears. The main challenge that the responder may give up quickly if the desired behavior is not realized despite the reinforcements (Rachlin, 2015) In real life situations, reinforcers are rarely continuous; they appear within a schedule that is intermittent and may reinforce the response or in some occasions fail to. Intermittent reinforcement leads to a slow change in behavior In comparison to continuous reinforcement, however, they lead to resistance to extinction. This is due to the reason that they take longer to reappear and thus before the learner realizes that there is no reward to accompany the behavior. Thus, it sticks and takes the time to be extinct (Sakamoto, 2017). References Aloff, B. (2013).Positive Reinforcement(1st ed.). Neptune City: TFH Publications. Axelrod, S., Hall, R. (2015).Behavior modification(1st ed.). Austin, Tex.: Pro-Ed. Blackwood, R. (2014).The Control of Anti-Social Behavior in Inner-City Classrooms Through the Use of Verbally Mediated Self-Control (Teaching Verbally Mediated Self-Control in the Classroom). Final Report(1st ed.). Fredrick, H. (2017).ISTC 301: Integrating Instructional Tech / Strengths and Weaknesses of Operant Conditioning.Integratingtech301.pbworks.com. Retrieved 6 May 2017, from https://integratingtech301.pbworks.com/w/page/20021638/Strengths%20and%20Weaknesses%20of%20Operant%20Conditioning Garner, P. (2017).Challenging Behaviour in the Classroom.amazonaws. Retrieved 6 May 2017, from https://documents.routledge-interactive.s3.amazonaws.com/9781138787704/st/Challenging_Behaviour_in_the_Classroom.pdf Geis, G., Stebbins, W., Lundin, R. (2016).Reflex and operant conditioning(1st ed.). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Gupta, B. (2017). Extraversion and reinforcement in verbal operant conditioning.British Journal Of Psychology,67(1), 47-52. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1976.tb01496.x Hasekiu, F. (2013). Learning of Bullyings Acts Throught Operant Conditioning.Mediterranean Journal Of Social Sciences. https://dx.doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n9p519 Joseph, J. (1974). Operant Conditioning.The American Journal Of Nursing,74(3), 517. https://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3469653 Mike, M. (2011).Behavior Modification of Emotionally Disturbed Youth, Final Report of Educational Adjustment Classes(1st ed.). Rachlin, H. (2015). Classical conditioning and operant conditioning: A response pattern analysis.Psyccritiques,24(7). https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/018877 Sakamoto, W. (2017).7.2 Changing Behavior Through Reinforcement and Punishment: Operant Conditioning | Introduction to Psychology.Open.lib.umn.edu. Retrieved 6 May 2017, from https://open.lib.umn.edu/intropsyc/chapter/7-2-changing-behavior-through-reinforcement-and-punishment-operant-conditioning/ Segal, E. (2016). Brief Books on a Large Topic: Operant Conditioning.Psyccritiques,20(12). https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/014467 Simmon, S. (2017).How To Use Operant conditioning in your classroom.Teach-nology.com. Retrieved 6 May 2017, from https://www.teach-nology.com/tutorials/teaching/operantcond.html Staddon, J., Niv, Y. (2012). Operant conditioning.Scholarpedia,3(9), 2318. https://dx.doi.org/10.4249/scholarpedia.2318 Vargas, J. (2017). From Operant Conditioning to Selection by Consequences.Interao Em Psicologia,20(3). https://dx.doi.org/10.5380/psi.v20i3.49113

Tuesday, April 7, 2020

Computer Hacking Essays - Computing, Hacker Culture, Security Hacker

Computer Hacking As the world becomes more and more reliant on computers the computer hacking industry is greatly rising. With people such as Kevin Mitnick, who is known as a computer terrorist (Kjochaiche 1), computerized information isn't safe any more. Kevin is known as the most high-profiled computer criminal and responsible for more havoc in the computer world today.(1) He considered this a fun and easy task. He got caught and thrown into prison, but once he got out nothing changed. Kevin stated that as long as the technology is there it just calls to people to break into it. Computer hackers usually start off young, thinking that it is nothing but a little harmless fun. But as they get older, they realize it has turned into an addiction. The definition of a hacker according to the Hacker's Dictionary, a person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their capabilities.(Hackers 1) The Internet is just another playing field. (Kjochaiche 3) Hackers regard hacking as a game in which their mind is up against that of the system designers. (Hackers 3) The Internet allows the hackers to take files, programs, passwords, and other information from users that are using it. They use this as a tool to make it easier to beat the system. There are three major types of hackers, one with good intentions but gets slapped in the face due to the bad reputation of others, there are the hackers with bad intentions, and there are the hackers that fit in between. The bad hacker category is the largest by far. A bad hacker's motives are to punish someone or retaliate against the owner of a computer system.(2) Computer terrorists fall under this category. Some bad hackers may also hack just to challenge the programmer. The hacker feels that if they can break into it then they are much more superior than the person who actually wrote the software. They can feel so superior that they might enter a virus to eliminate a program that was not worthy of their abilities. One of the other many goals of a hacker is to steal passwords. Hackers can steal your password about four different ways. Intercepting your password through email is not that difficult.(How are they getting my password? 1) This is by far the easiest method because all they have to do is take the email as it is being sent to you. Hackers can also use a program called a password cracker to actually learn you password. There are two types of theses but both have their own problems. The first checks every password possible from the entry site. (1) The second uses a program that goes in and reads the passwords off. The problem with both is that you have to get the cracker into the site, undetected(1) You also must cover you trail. Some prefer the manual method first. There are actually lists of 100(or more) most-used passwords.(2) Hackers have reported that, a simple password that appears in the English dictionary will take about an hour or less for a hacker to crack.(4) This is not considered a long time to a hacker.(Brian 2) Third, they use what is called web spoofing. This is the most dangerous because they see what every you are doing. They can get you passwords plus any other information you might have. This web spoofing is caused by a middle man who can redirect information from your page, to his page, to the page you were sending the information to. The middle man sees all.(How are they getting my password? 3) This is above all the easiest way to get any information that they might want or need. The last method is through Java. Through a program they can hack into a computers hard drive through your Java program. That is why if you can avoid keeping your passwords on your hard drive do it. Some people keep their passwords on three by five cards and store them which is allot safer. The best method to securing yourself is always backing up files. That way if a virus or hacker crashes you computer you will safe. Another very safe method is to change your password often and don't use the same password for everything. If they already know another one of your passwords, they 'll try them first.(How are they getting my password? 2) Consider rotating your passwords, just make sure they are not available on you hard drive. In the long run it will be safer to go throughout the trouble than find out that someone is using your

Monday, March 9, 2020

lincoln essays

lincoln essays In March 1861, when Abraham Lincoln took the oath as the sixteenth president of the United States, the country had been struggling with the question of slavery for years. Kansas was bleeding from it, laws had been broken over it and in early February, seven southern states had finally seceded because of it and formed the Confederate States of America. In Kansas, pro-slavery and anti-slavery partisans engaged in a bloody war for control of the territorial government. Prior to these events, the voters who supported Lincoln in 1860 preferred preserving the Union rather than abolishing slavery; however they both became major issues of his presidency following his election. Contrary to many beliefs, the election of Lincoln was not the result of his followers, the majority of them being Republicans, wanting to completely remove slavery. He was known as the  gGreat Emancipator h and yet he did not publicly call for emancipation throughout his entire life. Actually, Lincoln denied continuously that he was an abolitionist. In two separate debates, he refused to believe that blacks should enjoy the privileges of American citizenship. Secondly, much as he hated slavery, he accepted it fs the law of the land, which he held sacred,  gas if the Almighty had written it in golden letters a yard high h. Throughout his inaugural address in March of 1861, Lincoln gave additional evidence suggesting that as President he really had no intention of advocating emancipation. Lincoln insisted he had  gno purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with slavery in the states where it already exists h. He continued by stating he had neither the lawful right nor the inclination to do so. His speech plainly states without doubt that Lincoln fs primary motive was not to abolish slavery. Instead, during the election campaign of 1860, Lincoln fs highest priority had been to keep the country united. He felt that any decision he would make as president wou...

Friday, February 21, 2020

Minix 2 operating system Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Minix 2 operating system - Essay Example so after line no. 21021, declare these counters. Now add hit_counter as I have said in the previous doc. And the time should be incremented each time any function in cache.c is called. So you must add variable time at 21070 & 21035 after having written the code ++hit_counter & Time_requiredtofree_block++. Remember, you have to add printf statements wherever you make an increment to these counters. Initialize hit_counter & time to zero (this is important). Well, I had written two 'C' files named fil1.c and fil2.c, which added and subtracted two numbers. When I ran this statement on bochs, I got the output of the printf statements. The tests of performance was a two step process. In the first part, don't make any changes to the Block_size and the Hash table, but include the variables hit_counter and time. Run the command and see the results. Then increase the BLOCK_SIZE & the Hash table size and then run the same command again. You will definitely find a change in the results. The answer to this lies in question 3. The first set of values was obtained for the variables hit_counter and Time_requiredtofree_block, when the value of BLOCK_SIZE and size of the hash table was 1024. The second values were obtained when the size of BLOCK_SIZE & hashTable was increased. I have found out a few more points which you can use... The second values were obtained when the size of BLOCK_SIZE & hashTable was increased. 5) fifth it says initialize the variables how and where Initialize hit_counter & time to zero at line no. 21021, where you declare them. FEW MORE FINDINGS I have found out a few more points which you can use for your presentation. This is regarding the Lru chain, which can be completely discarded. Instead we can use a circularly linked double linked list. FRONT PIVOT REAR The figure is a bit crude, but I think it can deliver the idea. Frst, the pivot is connected to the hash table entry. The FRONT is the end which contains those blocks that are least needed and the REAR contains those blocks that are expected in the near future (same as LRU). Now, this linked list has the added advantage at the time of reading the next block from this chain unlike reading from the disk thru I/o. in this, the code can be written such that the REAR is used as fast as the FRONT will be accessed. This will ensure that the performance of the cache is enhanced further over the LRU scheme. The reason being that under LRU, for accessing a REAR, it has to traverse to the end, while here, we could use sioimple logic (like a flag where if flag=1 go along front i.e. clockwise from pivot or if flag=0, go along rear from pivot i.e. anti-clockwise). Believe me, this will speed up the cache. It is extremely useful, when under our modified code, contiguous blocks will be accessed fro m the disk. So the OS will perceive that the next necessary block will be the contiguous one and it will place it at the REAR. Then accessing under theis scheme will be much faster than the one under the LRU.Pls feel